career decision


It is obvious! After education comes work and thus makes career decision one amongst the most important every student has to make preferably before the end of compulsory education at 16.
Read the Bite-Sized Sections that scatches beneath the surface below and on the following pages, once you have worked through it all to the end, Everything Will Click Into Place and in no time you will be good to go regardless of whether you had no career idea, one career idea but not sure about it or too many career ideas initially.


Qualifications, specific or general, when they strictly refer to the knowledge and development one has acquired through education not certificates with grades to show one has completed required schooling or training from an officially recognized or authorized institution at an expensive university degree level or equivalent cheaper but limited higher vocational or apprenticeship serve as absolutely necessary minimum entry requirement to most traditional careers, meaning, career aspirations must match your educational goals, do not leave school at 16 with no more than compulsory General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE) qualifications, follow your native folks into locally available, traditional occupations of elementary nature as that is most likely what you will end up doing throughout your adult working life or worse stuck in the vicious circle of poverty and welfare dependency, on and off the dole!

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compulsory education

The purpose of compulsory education is to coherently give students common essential knowledge and interpersonal also known as (a.k.a) life or people or social or soft or transferrable skills respectively at the level and amount that they can take in and understand fully and use it as their own whilst in education and thereafter in their adult work and social lives.
However, there is not a single agreed criterion on what compulsory education should involve but one rule of thumb is compulsory education is best when curriculum and syllabuses are chosen and developed based on a universal understanding of what subject knowledge and aforementioned skills are absolutely necessary for the future engaged workers and citizens.

The following subject knowledge and skills are absolutely necessary:
Classroom taught
  1. Basic numeracy - understanding arithmetic, geometry, logic - the connection and combination through eliminating fallacies, statistics - how to reason using trend patterns and probabilities.
  2. Laboratory science - understanding methods that employs empirical experimentation to draw conclusions - in Biology, Chemistry and Physics.
  3. Use of Information and Communications Technology - word processors, email, databases, spreadsheets, reprographics and so forth .
  4. Written And Verbal Communication - understanding the primary building blocks of reading and writing, composition and grammar, the ability to argue properly and avoid argumentum ad hominem - a situation that occurs when an arguer attacks the person that they are engaged in an argument with, rather than the validity of the person's arguments.
  5. Politics and economics - understanding of the world of ideas - freedom is responsibility, enterprise and capitalism, (geography) proximity and trade, currencies.
  6. Geography - proximity and trade, the supply chains of all consumable, personal and durable products.
  7. History - understanding of events that have affected the course of history and the modern world - slavery, colonialism, Bretton Woods, Treaty of Rome.

Maths is not involved! You can develop leadership, teamwork, personal motivation, organisation and time management on your own by getting into the habit of participating in individual and team sports, asking and answering questions, group discussions, drama and debate sessions, finishing your homework or assignments on time and so forth plus international cultural awareness and commercial awareness by using the links that will follow below.

commercial awareness
Well, this is one subject you are least likely to learn from your parents, relatives, friends, professionals, business people or taught in the classroom. To cut to the chase, learn it here.
First things first, what is commercial awareness?

Commercial awareness is being conscious of what is happening in a wider business world in relation to a specific enterprise/organization's internal activities.
Following below is a handful of competing multinational corporations (MNC) - corporations with facilities and other assets in at least one country other than their countries of origin and conglomerates - corporations that are made up of a number of different, unrelated businesses, the facilitating agents without which trade liberalization signed for by politicians on behalf of their respective governments at Bretton Woods and Rome would not have materialised and links to their directly or indirectly competing products/services listed below as examples.

Your task ▼

Use 'About us', Who we are', 'our business', 'company' and 'corporate' web-pages respectively for every corporation or conglomerate below to find out who its customers are, its history, structure, operations and so forth and use business information to see what may affect its daily operations and its future.
From this information you will develop fascinating awareness of what is happening in the world of enterprises.

Consumable goods - Non alcoholic beverages Personal products - Beauty & Grooming Durable goods - Commercial aircraft Services - Global payments Conglomerates - products & services further education

Further education is sandwiched between general and university education, apart from 'A' levels or equivalent Scottish Highers, Welsh and Scottish Baccalaureates, International Baccalaureates whose purpose is to prepare students for entry into higher levels of specialized study at higher education institutions, the remainder of further education is like a middle child suffering from identity crisis as it has no clearly recognised and shared core purpose and thus not worth pursuing at all.


'A' levels or equivalent that you choose and sit for exams have influence on what you can study at university and your future career. To learn more about them follow this link facilitating subjects


A degree specific program of study also known as degree major's purpose is to give students depth or expertise in particular fields that often form the basis for their careers. When it comes to choosing a university to attend, rank matters! as there are leading universities and others, the advantage of the leading is the affluent, well-connected home and international students they attract, a priceless alumni, a social capital in an institutionalized form as the network can only be created by attending a specific institution, as for teaching, university is where you do self directed learning, a skill you are assumed to have developed through supplementary home or library self study whilst in earlier phases of education, as for courses; there are tens of thousands offered without warranty where a prospective student alone is responsible for his/her choices, the easiest way to choose courses is through subjects a form of variety reduction.

Use the links below to find out which are leading universities, power of alumni, subjects with the best prospects and general list:
  1. leading-universities
  2. alumni
  3. employment by subjects
  4. subjects list
degree alternatives

Level 6 vocational qualifications and apprenticeships respectively are equivalent to a university academic degree.


You should pursue a degree only as the last resort, that is there are no other alternative qualifications to your chosen career as not only a degree has a short shelf life of no more than five years but also is a big investment with paltry return in most cases.

Higher degrees above bachelor

The more educated, the more ignorant! Every degree higher than a bachelor equals narrower and deeper expertise, unless you are planning to become an academic, it is not worth taking as it does neither improve your prospects nor guarantee premium wages.


For anything you are not taught in the classroom, offset by doing it yourself through other sources as in the world of work and enterprises nobody is interested in your sorry stories about how poor your education was they probably went through the same.
Also self- taught knowledge is what differentiates an individual from others, as the prescriptive formal education is homogeneous, that is, we all study the same or similar courses, attend the same or similar universities, read the same or similar books, attend the same or similar lectures and sometimes even taught by the same tutors.

Learn about capitalism, cultural awareness, events that shaped the world and Europe below and you will see everything in a different light.
  1. capitalism
  2. cultural awareness
  3. Bretton Woods 1944
  4. Treaty of Rome 1957
Use the links below to learn about the wider world at large.
  1. world factbook
  2. world atlas


A job is the regular work a person does to earn money where everyone be native or immigrant has a responsibility to seek out not an entitlement (something that everyone has a right to do or have) locally!

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Simple fact about the labour market

Labour market like any market has two sides, people seeking employment as sellers and employers as buyers and theories of supply and demand for labour apply in most instances. A job vacancy is a derived demand, it can be brand new or vacated post. People seeking employment compete to fill job vacancies.

Factors below affect employment prospects worldwide:
  1. Economic rent - value of wages earned that cover the basic costs of living - rent/mortgage, electricity, gas, water and sewerage bills, clothing, food and so forth that is necessary to keep an employee in his/her current employment.
    The higher the wages the higher the retention, the less the vacancies!
  2. Geographical mobility of labour - the degree to which people are able and willing to move from one geographical area to another or change an employers.
    A person born and bread in the seaside resort of Blackpool willingly commutes or relocates to Greater Manchester, further afield across the United Kingdom or emigrates overseas to find work.
  3. Occupational mobility of labour - the degree to which people are able and willing to move from one particular job to an unrelated one.
    Fat chance! A qualified doctor willingly becomes an Electrical engineer!

Professions and highly skilled occupations tend to have higher wages, low occupational mobility due to the curse of higher qualifications and occupational experience requirements but high geographical;
elementary occupations tend to have low wages, both high geographical and occupational mobility, the blessing of low qualifications and experience requirements.


Irreversible globalization and constant technological advances are agents that accelerate significant changes in labour mobility and no one is protected or exempted from their effects, where globalization allows for little or no restriction of movement of labour across international borders, technology wipes out some jobs (skillset obsolescence), changes and creates others; together they eliminate job security (job for life) in most sectors and confine local to geography, local jobs for local people to history on one hand and the absolute need for everyone to learn about the wider world beyond the school gates and confinement of an individual country's borders on the other.

Use the links below to learn more about how jobs are classified plus impacts of globalization and technology on them:
  1. classification
  2. globalization
  3. technology
world of work and careers

World of work (employees and employing enterprises) at large operate according to different norms to those in education, it does not hold particular skills you gained whilst in education in the same regard as teachers do neither does promise the greatest success for the brightest and most deserving, as for careers, all of them regardless of a job title whether be conventional or otherwise are overrated as most of what every employee loosely 'a professional' does daily as delegated for punters (customers, clients) is repetitive and boring, a consequence of division of labour as a result, the least disappointed are people that chose their careers based on expected universal real rewards that they can see, touch or experience, such as, salary and fringe benefits, security, promotion opportunities, working conditions and environment as are known facts rather than personal rewards that have to do with an individual's mind and feelings, such as, enjoyment, appreciation, opportunity to utilize one's abilities, sense of challenge and achievement, recognition and so forth that are nothing more than pleasant extra things, as for employers, for control purposes, they are more or less the same, that is, bureaucratic as they share in common system of rules, hierarchy of authority (top, middle, low tiers of management) and specialization in their structures.


Specialization creates an imbalance between those with superior domain-specific (subject/field) experience, knowledge or skill in one word experts and those without or novices respectively and thus justifies the exclusion of the later.

Example: Medical field
  1. Orthopaedic surgeon is for prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of disorders of the bones, joints, ligaments, tendons and muscles.
  2. Plastic surgeon is for repair and reconstruction of missing or damaged tissue and skin.
  3. Neurosurgeon is for disorders of the central and peripheral nervous system.

Domain-specific experience, knowledge or skill is not transferable across domains, and thus, orthopaedic surgeon is justifiably excluded from plastic and neurosurgery jobs respectively and the other way round.
In other words, if you want to make a career out of something, you must have to become a master of it as being a jack of all trades and a master of none will not get you far.

To see real examples of why careers are overrated use these two links below:
  1. Google doodler
  2. a job at Google

career choice

Now you have read all the above, you must have realized, you do not need to fuss or worry about any career, specialization is the best way forward, qualifications are prerequisite, you can therefore make a choice, simply, refer to the subjects you are currently taking in a classroom, luckily throughout secondary education before you sit for your GCSE exams, your education is general not specialist and thus covers all or almost all the subjects.
Remember! wage is a factor, you are choosing a career now but expect to be doing it in a few years time, therefore, find out about wages, future employment prospects then use job profiles to write down a shortlist of jobs that sounds interesting to you, pick the job you like most based on expected universal real rewards as you have read on careers and world of work paragraph above.

Use the list of links below to find out about wages, future jobs and job profiles, choose a career your way and concentrate on the subjects that will get you to it:
  1. wages
  2. future jobs
  3. job profiles
'Choosing a career is one thing, ending up doing it is another'. Success is hinged on preparation. To have a good idea of what preparation involves, read how to get a job

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